So this was the society principle, how to keep principle. Brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya. A very exalted status of society. So this Satyavatī is a famous woman in the history. Satyavatī. The whole Pāṇḍu-vaṁśa from Satyavatī.
So now, here it is said that tataḥ saptadaśe jātaḥ satyavatyāṁ parāśarāt (SB 1.3.21). Parāśarāt, semina given by Parāśara Muni in the womb of Satyavatī, satyavatyām. And cakre veda-taroḥ śākhāḥ. Veda, the knowledge, he divided. Vyāsadeva divided into many branches. Therefore Vyāsadeva is known as Veda-vyāsa. He expanded the Vedic knowledge. Formerly there was only one Veda, Atharva-veda. And this Atharva-veda was learned by tradition, by hearing from the spiritual master.
There was no book. Therefore Veda is known as śruti. Śruti means hearing. The spiritual master will recite Vedic mantra, and the disciples will hear. Just like we chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra or any other Vedic mantra, you hear. But there was no need of book. This memory was so sharp that once heard from the lips of the spiritual master, the students become completely well versed. There was no need of book.
But Vyāsadeva saw that next age, this Kali-yuga, people will be less intelligent. Here it is stated, dṛṣṭvā puṁsaḥ alpa-medhasaḥ. Alpa. Alpa means the brain substance not in much quantity. This is psychologically true, that within the brain, the brain substance, if there is more, then one is more intelligent. So here it is alpa . . . just see, modern scientific psychology, how it was known, long, long millions of years ago. At least five thousand years ago. Alpa-medhasaḥ. And this is scientific fact. Those who are students of psychology, they know it.
I was student of psychology, and our professor—he was a Scotman—he explained this brain substance, cerebular substance, Dr. Urquhart, that the more brain substance is there, more one becomes intelligent. And it has been found that a woman does not have more than thirty-six ounce of brain substance, whereas in man it has been found that he has got up to sixty-four ounce. Now, this is modern science.
Therefore generally, generally, woman, less intelligent than man. You cannot find any big scientist, any big mathematician, any big philosopher amongst woman. That is not possible. Although in your country, you want equal status with man, freedom, but by nature you are less intelligent. What can be done? (laughter)
So therefore, woman is advised by the Manu-saṁhitā, they should remain under the intelligent man, not declare freedom. That will be their life nice. Therefore it is advised that until one is married with an intelligent husband, she must remain under the control of her father. Still in India, until a girl is married, she cannot move freely.
(aside) Where is our Śyāmasundara?
You know what happened about that Sharma girls. Two girls in Nairobi, they wanted to join our Society. So Brahmānanda, as other girls are joining, he welcomed, but it created a havoc to the family of the girl. They went here and there. "Oh, the girl has gone out of home. There will be no marriage." That's a fact. In India still, in respectable family, if a young girl goes out of home for three days, it will be difficult, or she will not be married. So this still I saw in Nairobi.
So anyway, the system is unless one is married, a girl, she must remain under the control of the parents. Therefore it is the parents' duty to see that the girl is married to a suitable boy. That is the duty. When the girl is married, then parents' duty is finished. Not by the age. Up to this point. So during young time, say, up to, say, forty years, she should remain under the husband. And when there are grown-up children, she should remain . . . just like that Mrs. Sharma. She is under the care of her elderly sons.
So Manu-saṁhitā says that na svātantryam arhati strī. Woman should not be given independence. She must remain . . . just like . . . that is not bad. Just like a child remains under the control of the parents. That is good. Similarly, woman remaining under the control of father or husband or elderly boy, that is good for them. And still, they are very happy. Just like you see Kuntī. Kuntī was widow, but she was very qualified woman, so many ways. But still, she remained under the control of the five boys, five children, Pāṇḍavas. Kuntī also gave birth to a child before her marriage. That is Karṇa. That is Karṇa. So it was not very common affair, and in extraordinary cases it so happened.