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Pratyaksa, direct sense perception, and sabda-pramana, evidence from the Vedic statement, and anumana, hypothesis. So out of all evidences, the evidence which is called, derived from Vedic statement, that is accepted as most authoritative

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"Pratyaksa, direct sense perception, and sabda-pramana, evidence from the Vedic statement, and anumana, aitihya, historical or hypothesis. So out of all evidences, the evidence which is called, derived from Vedic statement, that is accepted as most authoritative"

Lectures

Bhagavad-gita As It Is Lectures

There are three kinds of evidences. Pratyakṣa, direct sense perception, and śabda-pramāṇa, evidence from the Vedic statement, and anumāna, aitihya, historical or hypothesis. So out of all evidences, the evidence which is called, derived from Vedic statement, that is accepted as most authoritative.
Lecture on BG 2.20-25 -- Seattle, October 14, 1968:

Viṣṇujana: "Change of body by the atomic individual soul is an accepted fact. Even some of the modern scientists who do not believe in the existence of the soul but at the same time cannot explain the source of energy from the heart, they have to accept continuous changes of body which appear from childhood to boyhood and from boyhood to youth and again from youth to old age. From old age the change is transferred to another body. This has already been explained in the previous verse. Transference of the atomic individual soul to another body is also made possible by the grace of the Supersoul. The Supersoul fulfills the desire of the soul as one friend fulfills the desire of another. The Vedas, such as the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad, as well as the Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad..."

Prabhupāda: Śvetāśvatara.

Viṣṇujana: "...confirm this concept of two kinds of souls by comparing them to two friendly birds sitting on the same tree. One of the birds, the individual atomic soul, is eating the fruit of the tree, and the other bird is simply watching his friend. Of these two birds, although they are the same in quality, one is captivated by the fruits of the material tree, while the other is simply witnessing his activity. Kṛṣṇa is the witnessing bird and Arjuna is the eating bird. Although they are friends, one is still the master and the other is the servant."

Prabhupāda: That is the eternal relationship. These are confirmed in Vedic literature just like Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad, Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad. The system is whatever is mentioned in the Vedas, that is authoritatively accepted. That is the Vedic understanding. If there is some evidence in the Vedas... Just like in law court, if there is some section in the lawbook, then the lawyers, the judge, accept it. "Yes, it is like this." Similarly knowledge. Vedas means knowledge. So perfect knowledge is there. Therefore if the evidence is there in the statement of Vedas, that is the proof. Śabda-pramāṇa. There are three kinds of evidences. Pratyakṣa, direct sense perception, and śabda-pramāṇa, evidence from the Vedic statement, and anumāna, aitihya, historical or hypothesis. So out of all evidences, the evidence which is called, derived from Vedic statement, that is accepted as most authoritative. Therefore Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad and Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad, they are Vedas. There is statement that two birds are sitting on the same tree. The tree is compared, the body is compared with the tree. And two birds, namely the Supersoul, Kṛṣṇa, and the living entity, individual soul, they are sitting together. And one is eating the fruit of the tree and the other is simply witnessing. This is our position. The other friendly bird, Kṛṣṇa or Supersoul, is giving us opportunity to act with this body as I like. He's giving us opportunity. Kṣetra-jña. I am the proprietor of this body. I have been allowed to utilize this body as I like. And the facility is given by the Supersoul.

So if I like, I can utilize this body for higher grade of life. Kṛṣṇa will give us all facilities. And if I like, I can utilize this body for lower grade of life. Kṛṣṇa will give us facilities. So He's always friendly. And He gives us also friendly advice, that "Don't act independently. Just act in Kṛṣṇa consciousness under Me. Then you'll be happy." That is His actual instruction. But the living entity does not care for the instruction of the Supersoul. He wants to act independently, and he has to suffer the consequence. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā in the Fourth Chapter. Yajñārthāt karmaṇo 'nyatra loko 'yaṁ karma-bandhanaḥ (BG 3.9). Yajña means Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa. Whatever you do, or what... Not whatever you do. You have to do only for Kṛṣṇa. Yajñārthe karma. Whatever you act. Never mind. Whatever you do. But you have to act for Kṛṣṇa. Yajñārthe karma anyatra. Otherwise, karma-bandhanaḥ, you'll be bound up by the reaction. The same example: just a person acting on behalf of some superior authority, government, personally he has no responsibility because he is acting on behalf of the supreme authority. Just like a manager or agent, attorney. Just like we signed one lease agreement. That Mr. Brown, he is acting as attorney on behalf of the landlord. So he has no responsibility. He is acting in landlord capacity or landlord consciousness. He is trying to save the interest of the landlord as far as possible. But if there is any mistake, the landlord will suffer or gain. He has nothing to do. Similarly, if we work in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, if there is something wrong... Because we can act two ways, wrongly or rightly. That's all. If we do rightly, it is all right. Even if we don't do it rightly, wrongly, still, it is right because the cause is the Supreme. Yajñārthāt karmaṇo 'nyatra loko 'yaṁ karma-bandhanaḥ (BG 3.9). The best, safest way of acting is to act in Kṛṣṇa consciousness or under the order of Kṛṣṇa. Or if somebody says "Where is Kṛṣṇa?" No. Kṛṣṇa is there. Just like Bhagavad-gītā is there, and the explanation of Bhagavad-gītā by the representative of Kṛṣṇa is there. So Kṛṣṇa, being absolute, His representative, His words are nondifferent from Him. We should not think that "Kṛṣṇa is not in my presence." As soon as Bhagavad-gītā is there and as soon as we understand Bhagavad-gītā as it is, that means we are hearing directly Kṛṣṇa. So if we do according to the instruction of Kṛṣṇa, as Arjuna did, then there is no reaction. We are free. Yajñārthāt karmaṇo 'nyatra. Then you go on.

Viṣṇujana: "Although they are friends, one is still the master, the other is the servant."

Prabhupāda: This friend is giving us facility. Kṛṣṇa is always our friend. Natural friend. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. Suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānām (BG 5.29). Suhṛdam means suhṛt. There are different kinds of friend, but here... In Sanskrit, for different kinds of friend, there are different names. Just like one friend is called bandhu. One is called mitra, one friend is called suhṛt. There are differences. Therefore they are different words. Just like in English language there is only one word "friend." But in Sanskrit, because it is perfect language, friend—what kind of friend. So Kṛṣṇa says that "I am suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānām." Suhṛt, suhṛt means he's such a friend... Just like you have got a friend. Sincerely he wants how you shall be happy. Just like your mother. Mother is also friend. Or wife, devoted wife. She is also friend. So mother, wife, or any such relative, or father. Or there are many persons in our ordinary relationships. So they want actually that "My, this friend be happy." That is real friend, suhṛt. And mitra, social friendship. Bandhu, official friendship. But suhṛt, suhṛt means one who actually desires good of his friend. "Sincere friend" which you describe in English. So Kṛṣṇa is suhṛt. He's always expecting my good. How I shall be good. Therefore He is canvassing me: "Please, you surrender unto Me." Just like father says, "My dear boy, why you are acting independently? Foolishly you are suffering. Just surrender unto me. I shall give you, I shall give you protection." Similarly Kṛṣṇa is friend like that. He's always asking. He is going with me in any type of body. Even if I get the body of a dog, Kṛṣṇa is always there with me. That is stated in Bhagavad-gītā, īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). Īśvara, the Supreme Lord, is staying within the heart of every living entity. So every living entity means He is staying even with the cats, dogs, hogs, or any lower type of animal. He has no hesitation because He is not living with him. He's living in Vaikuṇṭha, but He's so friendly that wherever this friend is going, He's also going there. He is with... As Paramātmā, He is doing friendly activities. He's sending His bona fide servant as spiritual master. He's coming as incarnation. He's coming as devotee, Lord Caitanya. He's helping us in so many ways. But we are so foolish we are not accepting Him. You see. He's so... Nobody can be better friend than Kṛṣṇa. But we are so much unfortunate, so much captivated by the external energy that we don't accept Kṛṣṇa as friend. We accept so many other things as friend. Go on.