So this human society should be divided into eight divisions. That is first-class human society. Just like any organization, any establishment, there are divisions of labor. The directing board, board of directors there are, then the secretarial board, then ordinary clubs, then menial, then workers. There must be division; otherwise it's chaotic. Nowhere you'll find without division it is going on very smoothly. There must be division. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā, cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ (BG 4.13). It is ordered by God that there should be four divisions for the materialistic condition of life and four divisions for spiritual upliftment. So there must be the brāhmaṇa, cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭam (BG 4.13). Varṇa means four divisions of society. Varṇa means class. It has been taken now as caste; but actually class. Class is not caste. Caste, of course... Throughout the whole world there is no such thing as caste. But anyway, in India there is caste. But Kṛṣṇa says that cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭam: (BG 4.13) "Four divisions of classes I have created—brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra." Who is a brāhmaṇa? That is also described in the Bhagavad-gītā: satya, śama, dama, titikṣā, ārjava, āstikyam, jñāna, vijñāna, so many qualifications required to become a brāhmaṇa. Not that because I was born in a brāhmaṇa family... This is discussed in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, that to take birth in a brāhmaṇa family is not all. You must be qualified, śamo damas titikṣā. That is required. The Indian culture has failed at the present moment because instead of considering the qualifications, they accept only the birth: The birth in a brāhmaṇa family makes a man a brāhmaṇa. No. That is not the shastric injunction. Qualities. There must be qualities.
So without such division... Therefore there is no such thing as Hindu dharma. No. There is no such word in the whole Vedic literature. You won't find in the Bhagavad-gītā or Bhāgavata as Hindu dharma. There is one word as bhāgavata-dharma, but there is no such word as Hindu dharma. This Hindu dharma or Hindu... This is creation by our neighbor, Indian neighbor, the Middle-east Muhammadans. They gave the name, Indian people, as "Hindu." "Hindu" means... There is one river, Sindhu. The Muhammadans, they pronounce sa as ha. So those who were on the other side of the Sindhu River, Hindu River, they were called Hindus. But actually Vedic religion is neither for Hindus nor for Christian nor for... It is meant for the human being. Vedic literature. So in the Vedic literature... This Bhagavad-gītā, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, they are Vedic literature. So there is injunction for observing the rules and regulations of varṇa and āśrama, four classes and four āśrama. Āśrama means where spiritual cultivation is practiced. That is called āśrama. So brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha and sannyāsa. Cātur-varṇa and cātur-āśrama, material and spiritual. So sannyāsī is supposed to be on the topmost of the human society. Cātur-varṇa, four classes then, among the varṇas, there are four classes: brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha, and sannyāsa. Sannyāsa is the topmost order of human society.
So here Śukadeva Gosvāmī, he's a sannyāsī. He's renounced order from the very beginning of his life. He never entered into any āśrama or varṇa. He's paramahaṁsa. Paramahaṁsa means the topmost amongst the sannyāsīs. Sannyāsī's the topmost. Above... Within the sannyāsī the paramahaṁsa is the topmost. Sannyāsīs are also, they are called kuṭīcaka, bahūdaka, parivrājakācārya, and paramahaṁsa. Kuṭīcaka means after accepting sannyāsa order... One has to accept the sannyāsa order. After gṛhastha there is vānaprastha and then sannyāsa; brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha, sannyāsa. In the beginning we, especially the brāhmaṇas and the kṣatriyas, two classes, higher classes, they have to take sannyāsa. If not, at least the brāhmaṇas must take sannyāsa. The brāhmaṇas have got four āśramas: brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha, and sannyāsa. The kṣatriya have got three āśramas: brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha, no sannyāsa. And the vaiśya two āśramas: brahmacārī, gṛhastha. Neither vānaprastha or sannyāsa. And the śūdras, they are simply one, gṛhastha, that's all. This is the Vedic order.
So because it is very difficult to maintain sannyāsa in this age, therefore the sannyāsa order is completely prohibited. Real sannyāsī means... Here is the description of life. What is that? Cīrāṇi kiṁ na pathi santi. They have to pick up some torn cloth lying on the street and cover it. That's all. Then this diśanti bhikṣāṁ naivāṅghripāḥ, aṅghripāḥ, aṅghri means legs, and pa means drinking. The trees drink water through the root. That is their leg. Therefore they're..., another name is aṅghripa. And aṅghri means leg. So different species of life there is different process of eating. We are eating through mouth; the trees are eating through the legs. This is God's creation. Not that the mouth is only eating. No. There are other senses, active senses, hands and legs, tongue. These are active senses. Genital, rectum, these are active senses. So aṅghripa means tree. The sannyāsī should depend completely on God. That is sannyāsa. Not that I shall go to a rich man and beg something and take money and utilize it. No. That is not required. Completely independent. Because that kind of sannyāsa is not possible at the present age, therefore, generally, sannyāsa should not be accepted. They cannot follow the prohibit.
But so far our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is there, we are not like that māyāvādī-sannyāsa. Our sannyāsīs completely devote life for serving Kṛṣṇa. Sannyāsa. Sannyāsa means sat, nyāsa. Nyāsa means to give up. And sat, oṁ tat sat, the Absolute Truth. So for the service of the Absolute, Kṛṣṇa, we give up all family life. Family life means to give up the whole world, because people are struggling hard just to maintain the family. That is also stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam:
- nidrayā hriyate naktaṁ
- vyavāyena ca vā vayaḥ
- divā cārthehayā rājan
- kuṭumba-bharaṇena vā
- (SB 2.1.3)
This is the materialistic life. What is that? At night, nidrayā, if one can get the opportunity of sleeping twenty-four hours, he thinks he's very much gainer, especially on Sunday. (laughter) So this is materialistic (indistinct), it is gain. In Calcutta we have seen there are office peons, they take letters and peon book and... Those who have gone to Calcutta there is a Dalhousie Square, that is downtown square. They'll take the peon book and letter and come to the Dalhousie Square and lie down and sleep up to four o'clock. Then they'll return to the office, and if the master asks them, "Why you are so late?" "No, the man was not there. I could not find. What can I do? I had to wait." (laughs) But he has spent his time by sleeping. So he thinks that "I'm getting so much salary, so if I do not work, if I sleep, that is my gain, that is extra profit." So that is material life.