Parantapa means one who can give trouble to the enemies. It is the duty of the kṣatriya. Enemies, aggressor, they should be killed. There is no ātatāyī. Ātatāyī means one who is aggressor. One who kidnaps one's wife, one who take away by force one's wealth, one who sets fire in one's house, these are called aggressor. So aggressor should be killed. Aggressor should be given trouble.
So Kṛṣṇa does not teach unnecessarily nonviolence. If kṣatriya becomes nonviolent, then the whole state will be in chaos. They must learn how to kill any criminal. He should be immediately killed. Just like Mahārāja Parīkṣit, Arjuna's grandson, when he was touring in his empire . . .
The whole world was at that time Indian empire. Not Indian exactly. Bhārata-varṣa. Now we have imitated some name, Bhārata, the "Indian," "Hindustan." But formerly the whole planet was known as Bhārata-varṣa. So when he saw that one black man was trying to kill one cow, immediately he took his sword: "Immediately I shall kill you. Who are you, killing cows in my kingdom?" This is kṣatriya's business.
So . . . but there is no kṣatriya now, because so many cows are being killed. Who is . . . nobody is protesting. It is the duty of the kṣatriya to protect every living entity born in the land, in his kingdom. It is not that, as it is going on now, that only the human beings should be protected and not the animals. No animal could be killed except in sacrifice, as prescribed.
Unnecessarily there was no need of killing animals. That is great sin. Dyūtaṁ pānaṁ striyaḥ sūnā yatrādharmaś catur-vidhaḥ (SB 1.17.38). Striya, illicit connection with woman, is sinful life. Unnecessarily killing animals, that is sinful life. Intoxication, that is sinful life. Gambling, that is also sinful life.
When this Kali was excused, he surrendered himself to Mahārāja Parīkṣit that, "You have asked me to go out of your kingdom, but where is out of your kingdom? The whole world is your kingdom. So kindly give me some place where I can stay."
So Mahārāja Parīkṣit gave him these four places that, "You can stay where illicit sex life is going on." That mean prostitution. "And unnecessary animals are killed, slaughterhouse." Striya-sūnā-pāna-dyūta (SB 1.17.38). "Where intoxicants are indulged in or gambling. In these four places you can stay."
So at that time, Kali could not find out such place throughout the whole world. So he was disturbed. So there was conspiracy to kill Mahārāja Parīkṣit because the Kali could understand that so long Mahārāja Parīkṣit would live, it is impossible to find out a slaughterhouse or a brothel or a drinking house or gambling place. No.
So the kingdom was so nice. We have got description from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Mahārāja Parīkṣit, Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, many. The monarchy was so nice that because they were trained up, rājarṣi . . . they were not ordinary kings. They were as good as great sages and great saintly person.
Imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ (BG 4.2). Kṛṣṇa said, imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam (BG 4.1). Kṛṣṇa said to the sun-god, Vivasvān. So He said: "The sun-god transferred the teaching to his son Manu, and Manu transferred the teaching to Mahārāja Ikṣvāku." Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam (BG 4.2). In this way, the point is that the philosophy of Bhagavad-gītā was especially taught to the royal order because they would know. They should know. Because a king is supposed to be representative of God, nara-deva. King is addressed as nara-deva.
Even in five hundred years ago, when Sanātana Gosvāmī was minister of Nawab Hussain Shah . . . Sanātana Gosvāmī wanted to resign. He wanted to join Caitanya Mahāprabhu's movement. So when the Nawab understood that Sanātana Gosvāmī . . . his name was Dabira Khāsa; he changed his name. So he said: "No, you cannot resign. Then my whole kingdom will be topsy-turvied. I completely depend . . . dependent on you." So Sanātana Gosvāmī said: "My, Your Majesty, I am not . . . no more able to serve you. Kindly excuse me." Then the Nawab said that, "Then I shall punish you. I am Nawab. I am king." So Sanātana Gosvāmī said: "Yes, you can punish me because you are representative of God." He never protested, "Oh, you are Muhammadan, I am this, Hindu or . . ." No. He accepted him that, "You can punish me."
So the idea is that formerly the monarch, the king, was actually representative of God. They used to rule in such a nice way that nobody was unhappy. During Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira's ruling, reign, you will find in the Bhāgavatam that people were so happy that they had no anxiety. Not only they were free from all anxieties, but they had not to bear even scorching heat or shivering cold. No. So they were so happy.