How these four varṇas are recognized? That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. Brāhmaṇa. (child making noise) (aside) The child must stop. The first varṇa is brāhmaṇa. Brāhmaṇa is the head of the varṇas, social arrangement. So brāhmaṇa, first of all it is said . . . not here in the Eighteenth Chapter. In the, I think, Fourth Chapter it is. Cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ (BG 4.13): "The catur-varṇa—the brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya and śūdra—they are created by Me according to guṇa and karma, quality and action." One is designated, "Here is an engineer." This engineer is not by birthright, "Because my father is an engineer, so I become an engineer." No. You must have the qualification of the engineer. That is called guṇa. If you simply say that, "I am a son of an engineer, therefore you must accept me as engineer," that is not accepted. Have you got qualification of engineer? If he says "Yes," then consider it. So guṇa.
Then I have got guṇa, but I do not practice it. Suppose I have passed medical examination, but I do not practice. Then nobody will call me a doctor sir. I must practice. I must cure patient. Then I will be known as medical practitioner. So guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ: not only quality but also practice. So what are the guṇas? The guṇas are described in the Bhagavad-gītā. Everything is there. Simply we have to study thoroughly and understand it thoroughly. Then the whole human society will be in peace and they will make progress not only in this life but in the next life also. Therefore it is said, saṁsiddhi labhate naraḥ. Sve sve karmaṇi nirataḥ saṁsiddhi labhate naraḥ. What is that saṁsiddhi?
- mām upetya punar janma
- duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam
- nāpnuvanti mahātmānaḥ
- saṁsiddhiṁ paramāṁ gatāḥ
- (BG 8.15)
That is saṁsiddhi. The saṁsiddhi means, perfection of life means, that this life we shall act in such a way that next life, after giving up this body . . . we have to give up this body, but we should not give up this body like cats and dogs. That is human civilization.