We do not need any high qualifications to offer prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Whatever our social or intellectual position may be, we can offer prayers. We do not have to be very learned or very scholarly, nor do we have to present our prayers in nicely selected words that are poetical, rhetorical or metaphorical. None of this is required, although if it is there it is very nice. We simply have to express our feelings, but in order to be able to do this we have to be aware of our position. Once we are aware of our position, our feelings can be expressed sincerely and automatically.
What is our position? This has been taught by Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who teaches us how to pray in his prayer (CC Antya 20.29, Śikṣāṣṭaka 4):
- na dhanaṁ na janaṁ na sundarīṁ
- kavitāṁ vā jagadīśa kāmaye
- mama janmani janmanīśvare
- bhavatād bhaktir ahaitukī tvayi
"O almighty Lord! I have no desire to accumulate wealth, nor have I any desire to enjoy beautiful women, nor do I want any number of followers. What I want only is that I may have Your causeless devotional service in my life - birth after birth."
In this prayer the word jagadīśa means "Lord of the universe." Jagat means universe, and īśa means Lord. Whether we are Hindu, Moslem or Christian or whatever, we must acknowledge that there is a supreme controller of this universe. This cannot be denied by anyone who has faith in God. Our conviction should be that our Supreme Father is Jagadīśa, or Lord of the entire universe. Only Lord Jagadīśa is in control; everyone else is controlled. The atheists, however, do not like this term because they like to think that they are in control, but actually this is not the case. All beings in the material world are subject to the three modes of material nature - goodness, passion and ignorance - but the Supreme Lord is above these modes (BG 7.13):
- tribhir guṇamayair bhāvair
- ebhiḥ sarvam idaṁ jagat
- mohitaṁ nābhijānāti
- mām ebhyaḥ param avyayam
"Deluded by the three modes (goodness, passion, and ignorance), the whole world does not know Me who am above them and inexhaustible."
The Brahma-saṁhitā also gives us information regarding Jagadīśa, the Supreme. In that work, Lord Brahmā says that the supreme controller is Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself (īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ (Bs. 5.1)). The word īśvaraḥ means controller, and the word paramaḥ means supreme. All of us are controllers to some limited extent. If we have nothing to control, sometimes we keep a dog or cat so we can say, "My dear dog, please come here." In this way we can think, "I am the controller." Sometimes the tables turn, however, and we find that the dog controls the master. This happens because actually no one is the controller, and everyone is controlled. Unfortunately we are forgetful of this situation, and this forgetfulness is called māyā. We refuse to accept any controller of this universe because if we accept a controller we have to account for our sinful activities, just as when we accept the government we have to account for our unlawful activities. Our position is that we want to continue in our sinful activities, and therefore we deny the existence of a controller. This is the basic principle of godlessness. The current propaganda that "God is dead" is spread because people want to continue being rascals without restriction. This is the basic principle underlying the denial of God's existence. But however much we deny His existence, He will not die. In this regard, there is a Bengali proverb that says: śakuni śāpe gorumaraṇa. The word śakuni means vulture. Vultures enjoy dead animal carcasses, especially the carcass of the cow. Sometimes a vulture may go for days without a carcass; therefore this proverb says that the vulture curses the cow, wishing him to die. But this does not mean that the cow will die just to oblige the vulture. Similarly, these atheistic vultures want to see God dead so they can take pleasure in thinking, "Now God is dead, and I can do anything I like."
We must know then for certain that there is a controller; that is the beginning of knowledge. Why should we deny this truth? In every field of activity we find some finite controller, so how can we deny the existence of an infinite controller in this creation? It is not without reason therefore that Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu particularly uses this word Jagadīśa, Lord of the universe. He does not manufacture the term, for it is found in many different Vedic mantras. For instance:
- tava kara-kamala-vare nakham adbhuta-śṛṅgaṁ
- keśava dhṛta-narahari-rūpa jaya jagadīśa hare
"O my Lord, Your hands are very beautiful, like the lotus flower, but with Your long nails You have ripped apart the wasp Hiraṇyakaśipu. Unto You, Lord of the universe, do I offer my humble obeisances."
Hiraṇyakaśipu was an atheist who denied the existence of God, but God came as Lord Nṛsiṁha-deva, a half-man, half-lion incarnation, and killed him. Therefore praise is given to the Lord as supreme controller of the universe and all living entities (jaya jagadīśa hare).
There is also another prayer: jagannātha-svāmī nayana-patha-gāmī bhavatu me: "O Lord of the universe, please be visible unto me." In all these prayers, and in many others, the supreme controller of the universe is acknowledged. Everyone is trying to become supreme controllers, but it is not possible by individual, communal or national effort. Because everyone is trying to be supreme, there is great competition in the world. The world is created in such a way, however, that no one can become supreme. Regardless of what position we place ourselves in, we will find that someone is inferior to us and that someone is superior. No one individual can say, "I am the supreme. No one is above me." Nor can anyone say, "I am the most inferior. No one is below me." Once we think that we are the most inferior, we'll immediately find that someone is inferior to us; and once we think that we are supreme, we'll immediately find someone superior. This is our position.
God's position, however, is not like this. In Bhagavad-gītā (7.7) Kṛṣṇa asserts His superiority Himself in this way:
- mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat
- kiñcid asti dhanañjaya
- mayi sarvam idaṁ protaṁ
- sūtre maṇi-gaṇa iva
"O conqueror of wealth (Arjuna), there is no truth superior to Me. Everything rests upon Me, as pearls are strung on a thread."
God is asamordhva, which means that no one is equal to or superior to Him. If we find someone who has no superior, we can accept him as God. God can be defined as one who has no superior and who has no equal. This is the Vedic version. In the Upaniṣads it is said, na tat samaś cābhyadhikaś ca dṛśyate: no one is found equal to or greater than Him.
Another characteristic of God is that He has nothing to do. In the material world, when a man is considered very important, he always has a great number of things to do. The President of the United States, for instance, is considered to be the supreme man in the country, but as soon as there is some disturbance in Central Europe or in any other place in the world, he immediately has to call a meeting of his cabinet to consider how to deal with the situation. So even he is required to do so many things. If he does not do anything, he is no longer the supreme man. In Vedic literatures, however, we find that God has nothing to do (na tasya kāryaṁ karaṇaṁ ca vidyate). Kṛṣṇa may act in so many ways in the world, but it is not because He is required to do so. This is indicated in Bhagavad-gītā (3.22)
- na me pārthāsti kartavyaṁ
- triṣu lokeṣu kiñcana
- nānavāptam avāptavyaṁ
- varta eva ca karmaṇi
"O son of Pṛthā, there is no work prescribed for Me within all the three planetary systems. Neither am I in want of anything, nor have I the need to obtain anything - and yet I am engaged in work."
In this respect it is interesting to note that one European gentleman, who went to Calcutta and visited several temples, noted that in the temple of the goddess Kālī, the deity had a very ferocious figure, with a chopper in hand, and was cutting off the heads of demons and wearing them as garlands. In other temples he saw the deity engaged in similar activities, but when he came to the Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa temple, he said, "I find that in this temple there is God." When asked how he concluded this, he said, "In every temple I saw that the deity was doing something, but here I see that God is simply playing a flute and enjoying Himself. He obviously has nothing to do." This is a very intelligent conclusion; indeed, it is the Vedic conclusion.
Nowadays it is becoming fashionable for people to claim that they are becoming God by meditation. This means that by meditation it is possible to transform oneself into God; in other words, God meditates, and by His meditation He becomes God. This is all nonsense. God is God, and He was always God and will always be God. Even as an infant on the lap of His mother Kṛṣṇa is God. No meditation was required, no austerity or penance. When Pūtanā, the demonic witch, came to poison Baby Kṛṣṇa, she came as a beautiful young girl and asked Mother Yaśodā, "Oh, Yaśodāmayī, you have a very nice baby. Will you kindly give Him to me so I can nurse Him?" Yaśodā was a very simple village woman, and she said, "Oh yes, you can take my child." Pūtanā had smeared poison on her breasts, and she intended to kill Kṛṣṇa by letting Him suck them. This is the demonic spirit; demons are always wanting to kill Kṛṣṇa so they can say, "God is dead. There is no God. God is impersonal." Kṛṣṇa was so kind to Pūtanā that He allowed her to nurse Him, but when He sucked her breasts He not only sucked out the poison but her life as well. Pūtanā fell to the ground dead and was immediately transformed into her original demonic form. So this is God; in the lap of His mother He is God. He does not have to become God by meditation, penance, austerity or by following rules or regulations. He is substantially and eternally God, and He has nothing to do. If one claims that he can become God by worshiping such and such a deity or by meditating, we should immediately take it that he is not a god, but a dog. In understanding God, we must be careful to accept the Vedic conclusion only: na tasya kāryaṁ karaṇaṁ ca vidyate: God has nothing to do. Why would God have to do something to become God? If we manufacture gold, that is artificial gold, not real gold. Gold is natural, and similarly God is natural. In His childhood pastimes, in the lap of His mother, He is God; while He is playing with His boyfriends, He is God; while He is dancing, He is God; while He is fighting at Kurukṣetra, He is God; while He is married to His queens, He is God; and while He is speaking, He is God. There is no difficulty in understanding God. All that is required of us is that we listen to Kṛṣṇa.
In Bhagavad-gītā (10.8) Kṛṣṇa tells Arjuna:
- aham sarvasya prabhavo
- mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate
- iti matvā bhajante māṁ
- budhā bhāva-samanvitāḥ
"I am the source of everything; from Me the entire creation flows. Knowing this, the wise worship Me with all their hearts."
This means that Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the fountainhead of Lord Śiva and the origin of Viṣṇu and of Brahmā, and, of course, of all other demigods and other living creatures. He says further (BG 15.7):
- mamaivāṁśo jīva-loke
- jīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ
- prakṛti-sthāni karṣati
"The living entities in this conditional world are My fragmental parts, and they are eternal. But due to conditioned life, they are struggling very hard with the six senses, which include the mind."
In the Brahma-saṁhitā Lord Brahmā explains that if we are looking for God, here is God (Bs. 5.38):
- santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu vilokayanti
- yaṁ śyāmasundaram acintya-guṇa-svarūpaṁ
- govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, Who is Śyāmasundara, Kṛṣṇa Himself, with inconceivable innumerable attributes, whom the pure devotees see in their heart of hearts with the eye of devotion tinged with the salve of love."
There are similar descriptions everywhere in Vedic literature, but rascals and demons are so obstinate that even though Kṛṣṇa is confirmed to be the Supreme God by the twelve standard ācāryas (Brahmā, Nārada, Śiva, Bhīṣma, the Kumāras, Kapila, Manu, etc.) and by Vyāsa, Devala and many other devotees, they still refuse to accept Him. Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu also confirms that Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Godhead, and the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam says, kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam gives a list of all incarnations of God, and at last concludes that the name Kṛṣṇa, which appears on this list, indicates the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whereas all other names represent manifestations or incarnations. Ete cāṁśa-kalāḥ puṁsaḥ (SB 1.3.28). All other names of God are either parts of God or portions of parts. The parts are called aṁśa, and the portions of parts are called kalāḥ. As living entities, we are aṁśa, but we are very fragmental aṁśa. All others are either aṁśa or kalāḥ, but Kṛṣṇa is bhagavān svayam - the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Our prayers should be directed to the Supreme Personality of Godhead and none else. Therefore we pray with Brahmā (Bs. 5.29):
- cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vṛkṣa-
- lakṣāvṛteṣu surabhīr abhipālayantam
- govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the first progenitor, who is tending the cows, fulfilling all desire, in abodes built with spiritual gems, surrounded by millions of wish-fulfilling trees, always served with great reverence and affection by hundreds of thousands of Lakṣmīs, or gopīs."
Here Kṛṣṇa is called the original person (ādi-puruṣam). We are all persons. Our father is a person, and therefore we are persons. If we trace our father's father back, we will find that he was also a person, and that his father was a person, and so on all the way back to Lord Brahmā, who was the first created person in this universe. Then we will also find that Lord Brahmā's father, Viṣṇu, is also a person. Everyone is a person, and Kṛṣṇa is the supreme person. The impersonalists' understanding of God is called nirākāra. Niḥ means "negative" and ākāra means "form," so nirākāra means "negative form." The impersonalists are mistaken when they think that God has no form at all. The word nirākāra does not indicate that He has no form, but that he has no material form as we do. Form is there, but it is not material; it is spiritual form.
What is the value of our form? This form will be changed after a few years, as soon as we give up the body. Our forms are changed just as we change our suits and dresses, but God doesn't have a form like this; therefore He is sometimes called nirākāra. Form is there, and that also has been explained in the Brahma-saṁhitā. Lord Brahmā describes His form in this way (Bs. 5.30-32):
- veṇuṁ kvaṇantam aravinda-dalāyatākṣaṁ
- barhāvataṁsam asitāmbuda-sundarāṅgam
- govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
- aṅgāni yasya sakalendriya-vṛttimanti
- paśyanti pānti kalayanti ciraṁ jaganti
- govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is adept at playing on His flute, with blooming eyes like lotus petals, with head bedecked with a peacock's feather, with the figure of beauty tinged with the hue of blue clouds, and His unique loveliness charming millions of Cupids. I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose transcendental form is full of bliss, truth and substantiality and is thus full of the most dazzling splendor. Each of the limbs of that transcendental figure possesses, in Himself, the full-fledged functions of all the organs, and eternally sees, maintains and manifests the infinite universes, both spiritual and mundane."
This form has nothing whatsoever to do with material forms. Impersonalists say, "Oh, you say Kṛṣṇa has a form. If so, how can you say that He is the Supreme? The impersonal Brahman is the Supreme, and the impersonal Brahman is formless." But we have information from Bhagavad-gītā that Kṛṣṇa is the source of the impersonal Brahman (BG 14.27):
- brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham
- amṛtasyāvyayasya ca
- śāśvatasya ca dharmasya
- sukhasyaikāntikasya ca
"And I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman, which is immortal and imperishable, eternal, the constitutional position of ultimate happiness."
Kṛṣṇa certainly has form, but His form, as stated before, is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha (Bs. 5.1), eternal, full of bliss, and full of knowledge. The attributes of His transcendental body are summarized by Lord Brahmā in this way (Bs. 5.1):
- īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ
- anādir ādir govindaḥ
"Kṛṣṇa, who is known as Govinda, is the Supreme Godhead. He has an eternal, blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin and He is the prime cause of all causes."
The word Govinda means "He who gives pleasure to the senses." We perceive pleasure through our senses, and therefore Kṛṣṇa, who is the reservoir of pleasure, is called Govinda. If we serve Kṛṣṇa with purified senses, we will begin to relish the pleasure of that supreme reservoir.
How can we describe God or understand His glories? It is not possible. God is unlimited. Regardless of our finite limitations, however, we can express our own feelings and say, "My God, my Lord." This will be accepted. Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu teaches us to pray in this way (CC Antya 20.32, Śikṣāṣṭaka 5):
- ayi nanda-tanuja kiṅkaraṁ
- patitaṁ māṁ viṣame bhavāmbudhau
- kṛpayā tava pāda-paṅkaja-
- sthita-dhūlī-sadṛśaṁ vicintaya
"O son of Mahārāja Nanda, I am Your eternal servitor, and although I am so, somehow or other I have fallen in the ocean of birth and death. please, therefore, pick me up from this ocean of death and fix me as one of the atoms at Your lotus feet."
This should be the standard of prayer; we should only want to be placed as one of the atoms at Kṛṣṇa's lotus feet to render service unto Him. Everyone is praying to God with some interest, but even if we pray to God, "Give me some money, give me some relief, a nice house, a nice wife, or nice food," that is also good. Yet this is not to the standard of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu's prayer. Our only prayer should be that the Lord enable us to serve Him birth after birth. Our prayer should be, "Dear Lord, You are so great that I want to engage in Your service. I have been serving all these rascals, and I am not satisfied. Now I have come to You, please engage me in Your service." This is the last word in prayer. Some people complain that when they pray to God they do not feel His presence. We should know that this is due to our incapacities, not God's. There are two conceptions of presence - the physical conception and the vibrational conception. The physical conception is temporary, whereas the vibrational conception is eternal. When we enjoy or relish the vibration of Kṛṣṇa's teachings in Bhagavad-gītā, or when we chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, we should know that by those vibrations He is immediately present. He is absolute, and because of this His vibration is just as important as His physical presence. When we feel separation from Kṛṣṇa or the spiritual master, we should just try to remember their words of instructions, and we will no longer feel that separation. Such association with Kṛṣṇa and the spiritual master should be association by vibration, not physical presence. That is real association. We put so much stress on seeing, but when Kṛṣṇa was present on this earth, so many people saw Him and did not realize that He is God; so what is the advantage of seeing? By seeing Kṛṣṇa, we will not understand Him, but by listening carefully to His teachings, we can come to the platform of understanding. We can touch Kṛṣṇa immediately by sound vibration; therefore we should give more stress to the sound vibration of Kṛṣṇa and of the spiritual master - then we'll feel happy and won't feel separation.
From Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam we understand that when Kṛṣṇa departed from this world, Arjuna was overwhelmed with sorrow, but when he began to remember the instructions of Bhagavad-gītā, he became pacified. Arjuna was Kṛṣṇa's constant friend, so when Kṛṣṇa went to His abode, Arjuna was overwhelmed, but just by remembering His teachings he got relief from the pains of separation. Thus whenever we feel separation, it is best to remember the teachings. The teachings of Bhagavad-gītā were imparted to Arjuna for his happiness and for the happiness of all men. This is indicated by Kṛṣṇa, at the beginning of the Tenth Chapter, when He says (BG 10.1):
- bhūya eva mahā-bāho
- śṛṇu me paramaṁ vacaḥ
- yat te 'haṁ prīyamāṇāya
- vakṣyāmi hita-kāmyayā
"Again, O mighty-armed Arjuna, listen to My supreme word, which I shall impart to you for your benefit and which will give you great joy."
By hearing the words of Lord Kṛṣṇa and following them carefully, we will attain not only peace in the world, but the supreme peace (parāṁ śāntim). All that is required is that we seek refuge in the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa and render service unto Him by chanting His glories and pushing this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement in every town and village of the world. It is Kṛṣṇa's promise that by such surrender peace and eternal life will come automatically (BG 18.62):
- tam eva śaraṇaṁ gaccha
- sarva-bhāvena bhārata
- tat-prasādāt parāṁ śāntiṁ
- sthānaṁ prāpsyasi śāśvatam
"O scion of Bharata, surrender unto Him in all respects, so that by His mercy you can have transcendental peace and the eternal abode."