So dehino 'smin yathā dehe (BG 2.13). All of us, the living entity, soul, is within this body. Not this body I am. So one who has realized this thing, that "I am not this body, I am spirit soul, and living by nature's arrangement, I have been allowed to live in such and such body," then he is learned. That is the beginning. So Kṛṣṇa, from the previous verse, that is actual spiritual education. In the world, these rascals are going on, spiritualists. They do not know the very first thing of spiritual knowledge, that "I am not this body." They are doing so many sinful acts on account of this body; still, they are going as religious, or spiritualist. Nobody is spiritualist unless one understands his spiritual identification, neither one is religious. Therefore in the Bhagavad-gītā the last word is sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66), because you rascal, fools, you have created so many religious system simply on the differences of body. That is not religion. Real religion is that "I am the Supreme Soul, Parambrahma, Kṛṣṇa. And you are My part and parcel. So we have intimate relation, like father and son. So it is the son's duty to obey the father. That is perfection of life." That's all. Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). You have created so many religious system on the bodily concept of life, bodily concept of life so strong that even big, big learned so-called religionists, they say that the animal has no soul. The bodily concept of... Because a human body is very much advanced, has got the power to kill animals, therefore they are speaking this nonsense that the animal has no soul. Why the animal has no soul? What is the symptom of possessing soul? I am spirit soul; I am within this body. Everyone can understand. Understand or no understand, if I am a human being, if I have got my soul, why this poor animal has no soul? What, where is the difference, that you say that the animal has no soul? Where is the difference? Let us analyze. Soul... The, I mean to say, existence of the soul within the body, how we can understand? That is very easy. Because yena sarvam idam... Everything is described in the Bhagavad-gītā. Yena sarvam idaṁ tatam: The soul is existing, spreading its influence all over the body, just like the sun is existing, spreading the sunshine all over the universe. Similarly, God is existing, spreading His consciousness all over the universe, all over the creation. Therefore He knows everything. Similarly, I am also part and parcel of God. I am also soul, like the sun. My shining, my consciousness, is spread all over the body. Yena sarvam idaṁ tatam. Avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idam. These things, ślokas, will come. "That thing which is spreading all over the body, that is avināśi; that is eternal." Antavanta ime dehāḥ: "But this body is antavat; it is perishable. But within the body, the soul, which is spreading its consciousness all over the body, that is eternal." We shall come to that verse later on. Avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṁ tatam.
Therefore the proof of the soul existing is that the consciousness is spread all over my body. As soon as I pinch any part of my body, I feel pain. Therefore I understand a soul is there. Just like a man who is going to die. So doctor is examining. He sees the pulse. He sees the heart—"Yes, it is beating." That is the sign that still the man is living. Similarly, the soul is there. The proof is that I can feel pains and pleasure on my body. That is explained in this verse. Mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya (BG 2.14). Actually the body in touch with the consciousness feeling pains and pleasure. Otherwise body, what is this body? It is a lump of matter. It is a lump of matter, earth, water, fire, air, material combination of matter. Just like you make one doll, combination of matter, earth, water, fire... Or no fire. Yes, still there is fire. Because you dry it in the sunshine, therefore there is fire. Earth, water, fire, and there is air, there is sky—but there is no soul. That is the difference. You can prepare a doll with earth, water, air, fire, all these things, material elements. But you cannot give the soul. That is not possible. That is possible only by Kṛṣṇa. Ahaṁ garbhaṁ dadāmy aham.(?) Just like man and woman. Actually the woman is giving the ingredients of developing body of the child. But when it is possible? When the man gives the seed. Otherwise a woman could produce a child without the aid of a man. No, that is not possible. When the seed, with the seed the soul comes. And when the soul is situated in the womb of the woman, the woman can assist by supplying the ingredients to develop the body. Karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa jantur deha upapattaye (SB 3.31.1). So by nature's process, when one gives up this material body, the subtle body is there, mind, intelligence and ego. The subtle body carries the soul and it is just...
Now, this soul, where it will go? Then the whole calculation is taken, what is his asset and liabilities of the life, daiva-netreṇa, by superior judgment. Just like a man in an office, in a business concern, when increment is given or promotion is given, the whole assets and liabilities are taken, anywhere. Anywhere, a man is promoted or degraded when all the liabilities and assets are taken and judged, "Yes, this man has done nice, so give him promotion." And if he has not done nice, "Degrade him." Or "Don't give him promotion." Similarly, we are getting different types of body according to our karma. Karmaṇā... Otherwise why all living entities are not of the same merit, same feature of the body, same position, same edu...? Why there are difference? This is common sense. Varieties of body, varieties of position, is due... Just like the same example: The poor man has got only rickshaw, and the rich man has got a Rolls Royce car because he has paid more. Similarly, if your work is nice, then you are promoted, promoted to higher standard of life, just like in the heaven—ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ—or in the Brahma-loka. But your, if your work is sinful and abominable, then you are degraded to cats and dogs. Ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthāḥ (BG 14.18). Those who are advanced in the... Because here everything is quality, everything. You go to purchase anything in the market; you will see the quality—first quality, second quality, third quality. Similarly, all living entities, all souls, they have got qualitative body. Qualitative body. So the first quality body you can get in the higher planetary system. The second quality of body means you have to remain in the middle planetary system. And the third quality body, you go down. Or... "Go down" means you become animals, trees, insects, birds, beasts, like that. This is going on.
So mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ (BG 2.14). So that, according to the body, you get pains and pleasure of this material world. A very rich man, living very comfortably, a little painful thing is intolerable by him, because he has got a such body, so delicate body. Just like a child. Because he has got delicate the body, little pinching makes him crying, uncomfortable. So it is all due to body. But the soul is different from the body. So Kṛṣṇa is trying to convince Arjuna that "Why you are hesitating to fight? Do your duty. Your so-called grandfather or so-called guru, as you say, your teacher, they are not this body. So in this fight, if your grandfather or teacher is killed, why you are lamenting? They are eternal." That is also explained, that "They were existing in the past, they are existing at present, and they will continue to exist. Simply the body will change. So why you are lamenting? Rather, it is a great facility that your grandfather has got now old body, he is not very comfortable, but he will get next life a very new body. So it is good for him if you kill him." Of course, that is not the point. (laughter) You cannot kill without any reason. That is not point. But here, "It is fight. It is duty. They have come to kill you." And the kṣatriyas, their determination is, when they go to fight, either to own victory or die, not returning back, sir, no. If a kṣatriya is hurt on the back side, he is degraded. He must be hurt on the chest, front side. That is kṣatriya. That means he has fought nicely. There is injury on the chest, not in the back side. Back side injury means he was fleeing. So kṣatriya's determination is, either you own the battle or die in the battle. That will be explained. "If you own the battle, then enjoy. You have got the kingdom. But if you die in the battle, you go to the heaven. Because you have fought for the right cause, you will go to the heaven." So killing, killing is very bad, but killing for the sake of right cause of fighting, or killing in the sacrifice, they are not sinful. Sometimes in the Vedas killing is recommended, just like in the fight or in the sacrifice, but that is not sinful. Sometimes a brāhmaṇa is sacrificing, offering, performing great sacrifice, and the animal is put into the fire just to give him renovated, new life, not for killing, just to test how Vedic mantras are being properly pronounced. That will be test. When sacrifice is done, the fire is there, and old animal is put into the sacrifice, and he comes out with a new body. That means the Vedic mantras are being pronounced very properly, and it is being carried out. This is the experiment, not for killing. Although in the Vedas there are recommendation that paśu-vadha system... Just like in the modern age also, when some experiment is made, it is made on the life of the animal. But they are killed. But when there is recommendation of putting an animal in the fire, that is not for killing; that is to see that this animal has got a new body.