It is said that all the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa are eternal, and this is confirmed in every scripture. Generally people cannot understand how Kṛṣṇa performs His pastimes, but Lord Caitanya clarified this by comparing His pastimes to the orbit of the earth about the sun. According to Vedic astrological calculations, the twenty-four hours of a day and night are divided into sixty daṇḍas. The days are again divided into 3,600 palas. The sun disc can be perceived in every sixty palas, and that time constitutes a daṇḍa. Eight daṇḍas make one prahara, and the sun rises and sets with in four praharas. Similarly, four praharas constitute one night, and after that the sun rises. Similarly, all the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa can be seen in any of the universes, just as the sun can be seen in its movement through 3,600 palas.
SB Canto 3
Fifteen laghus make one nāḍikā, which is also called a daṇḍa. Two daṇḍas make one muhūrta, and six or seven daṇḍas make one fourth of a day or night, according to human calculation.
The measuring pot for one nāḍikā, or daṇḍa, can be prepared with a six-pala-weight (fourteen ounce) pot of copper, in which a hole is bored with a gold probe weighing four māṣa and measuring four fingers long. When the pot is placed on water, the time before the water overflows in the pot is called one daṇḍa.
It is advised herein that the bore in the copper measuring pot must be made with a probe weighing not more than four māṣa and measuring not longer than four fingers. This regulates the diameter of the hole. The pot is submerged in water, and the overflooding time is called a daṇḍa. This is another way of measuring the duration of a daṇḍa, just as time is measured by sand in a glass. It appears that in the days of Vedic civilization there was no dearth of knowledge in physics, chemistry or higher mathematics. Measurements were calculated in different ways, as simply as could be done.
One daṇḍa - 30 minutes
Daṇḍa—a duration of twenty-four minutes
Cāri daṇḍa—four daṇḍas (one daṇḍa equals twenty-four minutes)
“According to Vedic astronomical calculations, the rotation of the sun consists of sixty daṇḍas, and it is divided into thirty-six hundred palas.
“The sun rises in steps consisting of sixty palas. Sixty palas equal one daṇḍa, and eight daṇḍas comprise one prahara.
Thus Raghunātha dāsa thought deeply about how to escape, and one night while he was sleeping on the Durgā-maṇḍapa, the priest Yadunandana Ācārya entered the house when only four daṇḍas remained until the end of the night.
Daṇḍa-cāri—four daṇḍas (ninety-six minutes)
“After ten daṇḍas (four hours) of the night have passed and Raghunātha dāsa has seen the performance of puṣpāñjali, he stands at the Siṁha-dvāra gate to beg some alms to eat.
Daśa-daṇḍa—ten daṇḍas (240 minutes)
Other Books by Srila Prabhupada
Teachings of Lord Caitanya
Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Lectures
Now Caitanya Mahāprabhu is submitting His knowledge in astronomy. Astronomy. And He's dividing the whole day and night into sixty daṇḍas. According to Vedic calculation of time, the whole day and night... Just like, according to Western system, the whole day and night is divided into twenty-four hours, they have divided into still further... Sixty daṇḍas. They are called daṇḍas. Tina-sahasra... Rātri-dine haya ṣaṣṭi-daṇḍa-parimāṇa. The whole day and night is divided into sixty parts. Tina-sahasra chaya-śata 'pala' tāra māna. And these daṇḍas are again subdivided into three hundred and sixty palas. They are called pala. Daṇḍa and pala. Sūryodaya haite ṣaṣṭi-pala-kramodaya. And the sun rises in every sixty pala. We can, we can see sun is rising, but not all of a sudden we can see. But gradually. That gradual, I mean to say, elevation of the sun planet is..., takes sixty pala times. Sei eka daṇḍa, aṣṭa daṇḍe 'prahara' haya. Prahara means three hours, and that is aṣṭa daṇḍa.