According to its movements in rising above, going beneath or passing through the equator - and correspondingly coming in touch with various signs of the zodiac, headed by Makara (Capricorn) - days and nights are short, long or equal to one another
SB Canto 5
In the midst of that region of outer space (antarikṣa) is the most opulent sun, the king of all the planets that emanate heat, such as the moon. By the influence of its radiation, the sun heats the universe and maintains its proper order. It also gives light to help all living entities see. While passing toward the north, toward the south or through the equator, in accordance with the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, it is said to move slowly, swiftly or moderately. According to its movements in rising above, going beneath or passing through the equator—and correspondingly coming in touch with various signs of the zodiac, headed by Makara (Capricorn)—days and nights are short, long or equal to one another.
Lord Brahmā prays in his Brahma-saṁhitā (5.52):
- yac cakṣur eṣa savitā sakala-grahāṇāṁ
- rājā samasta-sura-mūrtir aśeṣa-tejāḥ
- yasyājñayā bhramati saṁbhṛta-kāla-cakro
- govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead under whose control even the sun, which is considered to be the eye of the Lord, rotates within the fixed orbit of eternal time. The sun is the king of all planetary systems and has unlimited potency in heat and light." Although the sun is described as bhagavān, the most powerful, and although it is actually the most powerful planet within the universe, it nevertheless has to carry out the order of Govinda, Kṛṣṇa. The sun-god cannot deviate even an inch from the orbit designated to him. Therefore in every sphere of life, the supreme order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is carried out. The entire material nature carries out His orders. However, we foolishly see the activities of material nature without understanding the supreme order and Supreme Person behind them. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gītā, mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ: (BG 9.10) material nature carries out the orders of the Lord, and thus everything is maintained in an orderly way.