So generally, a human being accepts four principles, namely dharma, artha, kāma, mokṣa (SB 4.8.41, CC Adi 1.90). Dharma, artha, kāma . . . dharma means religious principle; artha means economic principle, how to develop economic principle; dharma, kāma, how to satisfy our senses; and mokṣa, and ultimately, salvation. But this is material principles. We have to surpass this material principle, then come to the spiritual platform. That is sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇam . . . sarva-dharmān (BG 18.66). This is also dharma. So just like people are engaged formally. Their temple, church, is sometimes simply formality. Real . . . their real business is how to satisfy their senses. "If for satisfying my senses I'll have to pose myself as a religious person, so let me do that." That is their religion. But that is not religion. Real religion is no sense satisfaction; simply to satisfy the Supreme Lord. That is real religion. Therefore (s)he says, bhavān hi veda tat sarvam.
So as somebody, anything, they require four legs . . . just like this platform, it has got four legs. Animal stands on four legs. Anything, it requires four pillars. So to remain steadily on the platform of dharma, these four legs required: dharma, artha, kāma . . . if I simply remain engaged in religious principle and nobody is engaged where to get food . . . because food also is required. So therefore not only religious principle, there must be economic development attempt also. But not one-man show. We should divide our society in such a way that somebody, some group of men, is engaged in studying the dharma principle and spreading it. Just like we have taken the principle, generally, to spread what is meant by real dharma. That is the business of the Brāhmiṇ. And similarly, some group of men should be kṣatriya for ruling over. Unless there is discipline, ruling, everything will be chaos. The government must be there. The principle of directors must be there. So dharma, artha, kāma. And we must live peacefully. Our senses should not disturb us. Because we have got senses, they want satisfaction. So we must give food them also, senses. Dharma, artha, kāma and mokṣa. But ultimate goal is how to get out of this material existence. This is four principle: dharma, artha, kāma, mokṣa. And mokṣa, by the impersonalist, their mokṣa and real mokṣa . . . real mokṣa . . . mokṣa means liberation. Liberation means to get out of this material existence.
People do not understand what is mokṣa, what is economic development, what is religious principle. There is no education. So unless there is sufficient education on these principles—dharma, artha, kāma, mokṣa—you cannot have peaceful life in human society. That is not . . . that is animal society. Dharmeṇa hīnāḥ paśubhiḥ samānāḥ (Hitopadeśa). If there is no principles of life, that is animal society. Unfortunately, at the present moment, the education is simply for sense gratification. That is animalistic education. Therefore, in spite of advancement of so many things, people are not happy. People are not happy.
So here it is said, caturbhir vartase yena pādair loka-sukhāvahaiḥ. Sukhāvahaiḥ. Sukha means happiness. If you want to increase happiness . . . everyone wants to become happy. That is the highest principle. Ātyantika-duḥkha-nivṛtti. The whole struggle is going on to minimize our miseries and to increase our happiness. That is our attempt. Everyone is working for that. Ātyantika-duḥkha nivṛtti. Duḥkha means unhappiness, and ātyantika means ultimate. So people do not understand that what is that ultimate happiness. Ultimate happiness is there. No, there is no duḥkha, there is no unhappiness. That is ultimate happiness. If you study whatever happiness we are trying to establish, there is unhappiness also. It is not unmixed. It is mixed. The economic development . . . just like modern age, if you . . . if any man wants to become rich man, he has to first of all accept unhappiness, to work very hard, day and night. Then he can get some money. Then, engaging that money for increasing further money, increasing further money . . . then one day he may be millionaire. So that millionaire, to become, that is also not undisturbed happiness. "How to keep the money? How to invest it?"
So here, in the material world, as we are engaged, unalloyed happiness is not possible. But if you actually want unalloyed happiness, then you have to be advanced in spiritual consciousness, unalloyed. Ātyantika-duḥkha-nivṛtti. Ātyantika means ultimate, and duḥkha means unhappiness. Ātyantika-duḥkha-nivṛtti. Nivṛtti means finished. So people do not see what is that ātyantika-duḥkha-nivṛtti, what is that ultimate disappearance of unhappiness. That they do not know. So many things they do not know. Therefore it requires education. Education means knowledge, to get knowledge. And the Vedic direction is that if you want really knowledge, then tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum evābhigacchet (MU 1.2.12): "One has to go to the guru, or the spiritual master." Gurum eva abhigacchet. One must go. There is no alternative. Nobody can say that, "Without going to the guru we can become happy." That is not possibly, according to Vedic principle. Even Caitanya Mahāprabhu, although He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He accepted guru. Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality, He accepted guru. So that is our Vedic principle. The beginning of Bhagavad-gītā it is said, evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ (BG 4.2). Imaṁ rājarṣi. Rājarṣi means great saintly kings. They also accepted a predecessor guru.